Sarah Newton Portrait

Sarah Newton

Conservative - Former Member for Truro and Falmouth

Sarah Newton is not a member of any APPGs
4 Former APPG memberships
Hunger, Shipbuilding and Ship Repair, South West, Sustainable Clothing and Textiles
Minister of State (Department for Work and Pensions)
9th Nov 2017 - 13th Mar 2019
Parliamentary Under-Secretary (Home Office)
17th Jul 2016 - 9th Nov 2017
Assistant Whip (HM Treasury)
13th May 2015 - 17th Jul 2016
Ecclesiastical Committee (Joint Committee)
19th Jun 2014 - 30th Mar 2015
Science and Technology Committee (Commons)
27th Feb 2012 - 30th Mar 2015
Administration Committee
26th Jul 2010 - 3rd Dec 2012


Division Voting information

Sarah Newton has voted in 1872 divisions, and 25 times against the majority of their Party.

4 Sep 2019 - European Union (Withdrawal) (No. 6) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 57 Conservative Aye votes vs 180 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 65 Noes - 495
18 Jul 2019 - Northern Ireland (Executive Formation) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 17 Conservative Aye votes vs 262 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 315 Noes - 274
9 Jul 2019 - Northern Ireland (Executive Formation) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 72 Conservative Aye votes vs 84 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 332 Noes - 99
1 Apr 2019 - Business of the House - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 28 Conservative Aye votes vs 264 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 322 Noes - 277
1 Apr 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship (Votes) - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 36 Conservative Aye votes vs 236 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 273 Noes - 276
1 Apr 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship (Votes) - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 32 Conservative Aye votes vs 228 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 261 Noes - 282
27 Mar 2019 - Business of the House - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 33 Conservative Aye votes vs 272 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 331 Noes - 287
27 Mar 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship Votes - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 94 Conservative No votes vs 157 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 160 Noes - 400
27 Mar 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship Votes - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 59 Conservative Aye votes vs 200 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 65 Noes - 377
27 Mar 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship Votes - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 34 Conservative Aye votes vs 234 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 264 Noes - 272
27 Mar 2019 - EU: Withdrawal and Future Relationship Votes - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 122 Conservative No votes vs 126 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 139 Noes - 422
25 Mar 2019 - European Union (Withdrawal) Act - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 30 Conservative Aye votes vs 281 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 329 Noes - 302
25 Mar 2019 - European Union (Withdrawal) Act - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 28 Conservative Aye votes vs 280 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 327 Noes - 300
14 Mar 2019 - UK’s Withdrawal from the European Union - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 112 Conservative Aye votes vs 188 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 412 Noes - 202
13 Mar 2019 - UK’s Withdrawal from the European Union - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 17 Conservative Aye votes vs 265 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 321 Noes - 278
20 May 2013 - Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 99 Conservative No votes vs 121 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 150 Noes - 340
20 May 2013 - Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 95 Conservative No votes vs 125 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 148 Noes - 339
20 May 2013 - Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 92 Conservative No votes vs 126 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 163 Noes - 321
5 Feb 2013 - Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and in line with the House
One of 131 Conservative Aye votes vs 139 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 400 Noes - 175
18 Apr 2012 - Finance (No. 4) Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 10 Conservative Aye votes vs 261 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 260 Noes - 295
30 Nov 2011 - Hairdressers Registration (Amendment) - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 22 Conservative Aye votes vs 41 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 63 Noes - 67
4 May 2011 - Sex Education (Required Content) - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and against the House
One of 6 Conservative No votes vs 61 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 67 Noes - 61
15 Feb 2011 - Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and against the House
One of 3 Conservative No votes vs 268 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 317 Noes - 250
15 Feb 2011 - Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted No - against a party majority and against the House
One of 3 Conservative No votes vs 269 Conservative Aye votes
Tally: Ayes - 320 Noes - 249
1 Nov 2010 - Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Bill - View Vote Context
Sarah Newton voted Aye - against a party majority and against the House
One of 8 Conservative Aye votes vs 272 Conservative No votes
Tally: Ayes - 257 Noes - 315
View All Sarah Newton Division Votes

All Debates

Speeches made during Parliamentary debates are recorded in Hansard. For ease of browsing we have grouped debates into individual, departmental and legislative categories.

View all Sarah Newton's debates

Latest EDMs signed by Sarah Newton

19th June 2019
Sarah Newton signed this EDM on Wednesday 26th June 2019

NATIONAL SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAMME

Tabled by: Emma Hardy (Labour - Kingston upon Hull West and Hessle)
That this House commends the progress achieved to date by the National School Breakfast Programme which has, with funding from the Department for Education, partnered with over 1775 schools to provide nutritious breakfasts to an estimated 280,000 children each school day; notes with concern that current funding for the National …
30 signatures
(Most recent: 24 Jul 2019)
Signatures by party:
Labour: 25
Independent: 2
Democratic Unionist Party: 1
Conservative: 1
Green Party: 1
View All Sarah Newton's signed Early Day Motions

Commons initiatives

These initiatives were driven by Sarah Newton, and are more likely to reflect personal policy preferences.

MPs who are act as Ministers or Shadow Ministers are generally restricted from performing Commons initiatives other than Urgent Questions.


Sarah Newton has not been granted any Urgent Questions

3 Adjournment Debates led by Sarah Newton

Tuesday 11th June 2013
Tuesday 18th October 2011
Monday 12th July 2010

2 Bills introduced by Sarah Newton


The Bill failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session. This means the Bill will make no further progress. A Bill to require the Government to publish a plan for meeting the domestic energy efficiency targets in the Clean Growth Strategy; to make provision for monitoring performance against milestones in that plan; to establish an advisory body on implementation of the plan; and for connected purposes.


Last Event - 1st Reading: House Of Commons
Tuesday 18th June 2019
(Read Debate)

The Bill failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session. This means the Bill will make no further progress. A Bill to require the Secretary of State to begin negotiations with certain local authorities with a view to those local authorities leaving the current national housing subsidy system and becoming Council Housing (Local Financing Pathfinders) by April 2011; and for connected purposes.


Last Event - 1st Reading: House Of Commons
Wednesday 8th December 2010

Sarah Newton has not co-sponsored any Bills in the current parliamentary sitting


22 Written Questions

(View all written questions)
Written Questions can be tabled by MPs and Lords to request specific information information on the work, policy and activities of a Government Department
2 Other Department Questions
10th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, if he will estimate how much his Department spent has spent in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

The Department’s electronic record system does not categorise expenditure by area. To provide this information would therefore require a manual trawl of all payments made between 2007-08 and 2014-15, which could only be provided at disproportionate cost.

The Department publishes monthly information on all payments over £500. This information can be found at the following website:

https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/departmental-spend-over-500.

10th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills, if he will estimate how much his Department has spent in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

This information cannot be provided without incurring disproportionate cost as the Department does not report how much spending it makes within individual Counties.

My hon Friend may wish to know that the range of activities undertaken by the Department includes direct and indirect support, advice and information all of which has associated cost. However, since May 2010 the Department has routinely published details of all expenditure. This includes the name of the supplier/recipient, the postcode, amount and purpose. This information can be found at:

https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/bis-spending-totals

10th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, if he will estimate how much his Department has spent in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

Apart from three specific programmes where the information is readily available, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport does not keep records of expenditure by individual constituency and would not be able to isolate this data, without incurring disproportionate costs. For those three programmes that are identifiable the expenditure is set out below:

Listed Places of Worship Programme

Financial year

Cornwall

Isle of Scily

Total

2007-08

97,795

0

97,795

2008-09

114,873

0

114,873

2009-10

71,950

0

71,950

2010-11

396,039

21,616

417,655

2011-12

58,735

10,240

68,975

2012-13

159,821

0

159,821

2013-14

124,115

0

124,115

2014-15 to date

74,759

0

74,759

Total

1,098,087

31,856

1,129,943

Memorial Grants Scheme

Financial year

Cornwall

Isle of Scily

Total

2007-08

0

0

0

2008-09

5,993

0

5,993

2009-10

0

0

0

2010-11

1,976

0

1,976

2011-12

0

0

0

2012-13

0

0

0

2013-14

0

0

0

2014-15 to date

0

0

0

Total

7,969

0

7,969

Broadband Delivery – Mobile Infrastructure Programme

Financial year

Cornwall

Isle of Scily

Total

2007-08

0

0

0

2008-09

0

0

0

2009-10

0

0

0

2010-11

0

0

0

2011-12

0

0

0

2012-13

0

0

0

2013-14

0

0

0

2014-15 to date

179,454

0

179,454

Total

179,454

0

179,454

10th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Education, if she will estimate how much her Department has spent in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

Information in the form requested is not held centrally and cannot be compiled without incurring disproportionate cost.

18th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, what identifiable expenditure her Department has spent on Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

The Department does not hold consolidated information at this level of detail. The main source of funding for waste, environmental and other Defra-related local authority functions comes from the annual Revenue Support Grant. Since 2007-08, funding received by Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly from Defra and its Arms Length Bodies has additionally included:

· waste PFI credits

· grants for water and sewerage infrastructure works on the Isles of Scilly

· flood and coastal defence capital grant in aid for flood and funding for resilience projects

· rural development programme funding

· catchment restoration funding for the South Cornwall River Improvement Project

· European Fisheries Fund money to support sustainable development of fishing communities

· grant aid for Cornwall Fire and Rescue Service to help crews to deal with local flood emergencies

· funding for Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty

· capital grants for catchment sensitive farming

· funding for the South West Bioheat Programme

To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, when the Government will publish the National Pollinator Strategy: for bees and other pollinators in England.

After engaging with interested parties over recent months, including holding a public consultation between 6 March and 2 May, we plan to publish the final National Pollinator Strategy this summer.

George Eustice
Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
29th Aug 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for International Development, what humanitarian and medical support the Government is providing to the population of Gaza.

The UK is one of the biggest donors to the Gaza crisis, providing more than £17million in emergency assistance since the beginning of the crisis. DFID is providing essential supplies to thousands of families, helping to repair water infrastructure, deliver emergency medical services, protect the civilian population and deal with food shortages.

18th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Transport, what identifiable expenditure his Department has spent on Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

The most recent data available for total public expenditure on transport is given in HM Treasury’s Country and Regional Analysis 2014.

Identifiable expenditure on transport in South West England for the last 7 years is reproduced below. This includes a split between current and capital expenditure for all years. Equivalent data is not available below regional level.


Identifiable transport expenditure in South West England, 2007-08 to 2013-14

£millions

Financial year

Total expenditure

of which: Capital

of which: Current

2007-08

1225

647

578

2008-09

1294

748

545

2009-10

1,156

656

500

2010-11

1,128

678

449

2011-12

1,015

610

405

2012-13

999

624

376

2013-14

1,009

668

341

Source: HM Treasury, Country and Regional Analysis (2012 and 2014 editions)


7th Jul 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Transport, what funding has been allocated to support rural bus routes in Cornwall in (a) 2013-14 and (b) 2014-15.

It is for individual local authorities to determine how much of the block grant funding they receive is allocated to supporting bus services. Local authorities in England outside London spend over £340m in direct subsidy to bus services in this way. The latest out-turn figures, for 2012/13, show that Cornwall County Council has an annual budget of £5.2m for this purpose.

The Department also provides direct support to bus services each year through Bus Service Operators Grant (BSOG). Details of BSOG funding paid to bus operators in the last three financial years is available online. It is not possible to provide this data broken down by region. The data are available at:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/bus-service-operators-grant-payments-to-english-operators-up-to-31-march-2013. Following changes to BSOG announced in 2013, the BSOG previously paid to operators in respect of local authority supported bus services has now been devolved to authorities. Cornwall County Council recently received£191,280 covering the period 1 January to 31 March 2014 and a further £765,118 covering the 2014/15 financial year.

1st Oct 2019
To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, what progress her Department has made on creating a single assessment service for benefits claimants who are disabled or have long-term health conditions.

We announced in March 2019 that we have launched the Health Transformation Programme to deliver a new integrated assessment service across all health and disability benefits. This will make the assessment process simpler, quicker, more user-friendly and more joined-up whichever benefit people are claiming. This integrated service will still be taking applications to individual benefits on a separate basis.

Alongside this work, we are also undertaking a feasibility study to explore whether a single assessment for Personal Independence Payment (PIP) and the Work Capability Assessment (WCA) would further improve the experience for the small number of people who apply for PIP and benefits requiring a WCA at the same time. The study is being informed by existing evidence and we have been gathering views and insight from key stakeholders including healthcare professionals to understand the issues around feasibility.

18th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, what identifiable expenditure his Department has spent on Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

The information is available in the ‘Benefit Expenditure by Local Authority from 2000/01 to 2013/14’ tables at the following address:

https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/benefit-expenditure-and-caseload-tables-2014

2nd Jul 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, what progress has been made on Cornwall's additional European social funding.

The Government has asked Local Enterprise Partnerships to work with local partners on a strategy for how the European Social Fund (2014-20) should be spent in their area. The Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Local Enterprise Partnership has developed a comprehensive strategy, the themes of which the Government has incorporated into the draft Operational Programme which will be submitted to the European Commission this month to being the negotiating process.

18th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Health, what identifiable expenditure his Department has spent on Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

Net operating costs for Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Primary Care Trust (PCT) for 2007-08 to 2012-13, and National Health Service Kernow for 2013-14 are as follows:

NHS Kernow Clinical Commissioning Group

Financial Year

£000’s

2013-14

688,724

Cornwall and Isles of Scilly PCT (5QP)

Financial Year

£000’s

2012-13

957,991

2011-12

925,132

2010-11

905,442

2009-10

858,510

2008-09

800,153

2007-08

752,115

4th Jun 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Health, what the annual cost to the public purse is of processing applications for free social care in England.

Access to State financial support for adult social care in England is means-tested and is not generally provided free of charge. In this way, individuals are expected to pay towards the cost of their care and support based on what they can afford.

Adults with less than £23,250 in capital can seek help with the cost of social care from their local authority. Local authorities carry out a financial assessment to decide what an individual can afford to pay. Local authorities must take account of an individual's capital assets and income, including income from Benefits and the State Pension.

Information on the cost to local authorities of carrying out financial assessments is not collected centrally.

In its 2011 report, the independent Palliative Care Funding Review recommended the provision of free social care at the end of life. A series of palliative care funding pilots were established to test the review's recommendations, and these completed their work in March 2014. NHS England is currently analysing the financial data collected from the pilots. Once this analysis has been completed, a decision will be made on the issue of free social care at the end of life, taking into account this analysis and wider policy and financial considerations.

4th Jun 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Health, how many applications for free social care were (a) approved and (b) rejected in England in (i) 2012 and (ii) 2013.

Access to State financial support for adult social care in England is means-tested and is not generally provided free of charge. In this way, individuals are expected to pay towards the cost of their care and support based on what they can afford.

Adults with less than £23,250 in capital can seek help with the cost of social care from their local authority. Local authorities carry out a financial assessment to decide what an individual can afford to pay. Local authorities must take account of an individual's capital assets and income, including income from Benefits and the State Pension.

Information on the cost to local authorities of carrying out financial assessments is not collected centrally.

In its 2011 report, the independent Palliative Care Funding Review recommended the provision of free social care at the end of life. A series of palliative care funding pilots were established to test the review's recommendations, and these completed their work in March 2014. NHS England is currently analysing the financial data collected from the pilots. Once this analysis has been completed, a decision will be made on the issue of free social care at the end of life, taking into account this analysis and wider policy and financial considerations.

4th Jun 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Health, what recent estimate his Department has made of the cost of administering the social care means test in England.

Access to State financial support for adult social care in England is means-tested and is not generally provided free of charge. In this way, individuals are expected to pay towards the cost of their care and support based on what they can afford.

Adults with less than £23,250 in capital can seek help with the cost of social care from their local authority. Local authorities carry out a financial assessment to decide what an individual can afford to pay. Local authorities must take account of an individual's capital assets and income, including income from Benefits and the State Pension.

Information on the cost to local authorities of carrying out financial assessments is not collected centrally.

In its 2011 report, the independent Palliative Care Funding Review recommended the provision of free social care at the end of life. A series of palliative care funding pilots were established to test the review's recommendations, and these completed their work in March 2014. NHS England is currently analysing the financial data collected from the pilots. Once this analysis has been completed, a decision will be made on the issue of free social care at the end of life, taking into account this analysis and wider policy and financial considerations.

4th Jun 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Health, which NHS England's review of Tier 4 Children and Adolescent Mental Health Services provision will be complete.

This mapping exercise looking at Tier 4 Child and Adolescent Mental Health services has been completed. NHS England is now formulating an implementation plan and is preparing to publish a report of the exercise along with the implementation plan as soon as possible via the governance processes of NHS England.

The implementation will proceed via two distinct phases recognising that there are urgent actions which need to be taken to improve access and to reduce long distance referrals. The second phase will focus on the more medium term actions required. The implementation plan when finalised, will be clear about the timescales.

16th Jul 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department, what progress has been made in securing the return of Agung Mantra to the UK.

The onus is normally on the individual to provide all the necessary evidence to support their visa application. Mr Mantra failed to provide the necessary evidence to support his initial application. The Home Office worked with him to conduct the necessary checks in order to establish his claim to hold Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK. His application was reconsidered and granted.

10th Dec 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Defence, if he will estimate how much his Department spent has spent in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in each year since 2007-08.

The Ministry of Defence (MOD) does not hold this data. The MOD ceased making estimates of regional direct expenditure after 2007-08, since they did not directly support our policymaking or military operations.

27th Nov 2014
To ask the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, what guidance his Department has provided to Cornwall Council to help tackle rogue landlords since 2010.

The Department published guidance in 2012 for all local housing authorities on tackling rogue landlords in the private rented sector and this can be found at:

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/7575/2206919.pdf

Revised guidance will be published in due course. In addition to advice on dealing with the small minority of bad landlords in the sector, it will also include guidance on improving the sector more generally, including prosecuting landlords for breaches of housing and planning legislation, pressing for the maximum penalties where landlords are convicted of an offence and the responsibilities of letting agents.

Brandon Lewis
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
26th Sep 2019
To ask the Secretary of State for Justice, what support he can provide to charities and other organisations who have not been paid money owed to them as a result of Working Links going into administration.

As set out in the Secretary of State’s Direction of 8 May and in the response to 275187, it was concluded, on this occasion, that it was reasonable for Government to protect Permitted Subcontractors who suffered losses as they relate to the collapse of Working Links and their Community Rehabilitation Companies. These organisations are directly involved in the delivery of vital frontline probation services. We have been very clear that this is a unique response to a unique and specific set of circumstances. This should not be viewed as setting a precedent for future scenarios.

Of the ten permitted subcontractors that the Authority agreed to make payments to as per the Ministerial Direction of 8 May, nine have been paid to date. The invoice from the remaining permitted subcontractor is currently being reviewed as part of our due diligence process.

Contractors outside of the permitted subcontractor list should continue to pursue any financial claims through the Administrator. The Authority can assist in this process if required.

Lucy Frazer
Financial Secretary (HM Treasury)
9th Jul 2019
To ask the Secretary of State for Justice, what steps he is taking to ensure creditors of Working Links are paid for services provided on behalf of the Government.

As set out in the Secretary of State’s Direction of 8 May, it has been concluded, on this occasion, that it is reasonable for Government to protect Permitted Subcontractors who suffered losses as they relate to the collapse of Working Links and their Community Rehabilitation Companies. These organisations are directly involved in the delivery of vital frontline probation services. Further to the Direction, we have worked with the Permitted Subcontractors to agree the monies that are owed, after undertaking extensive assurance checks against their Proof of Debt applications. We are now in the process of signing the Grant Agreements with each of the Permitted Subcontractors and validating their payment details in order to expedite payment of the monies owed.

We have been very clear that this is a unique response to a unique and specific set of circumstances. This should not be viewed as setting a precedent for future scenarios.